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Prefixes on verbs

Publicado: Julio 26, 2017, 9:15 am
por Pettigrew
In german if you add certain prefixes to verbs, they changes the meaning of the verb ib predictable ways. Thus, if you add, say 'aus', to any verb that takes a prefix, it will influence that verb's meaning in a predictable way. In Spanish I see the use of prefixes (for example--poner, componer, disponer, proponer, reponer, suponer, imponer); do prefixes have a predictable influence on the meaning of the root Spanish verbs? And, are there any good lists of such prefixes and their influence?

Re: Prefixes on verbs

Publicado: Noviembre 2, 2017, 12:15 am
por Spanish Teacher
Yes, here is a general idea of the prefixes in Spanish:

* ante- (before): antemano (beforehand), anteayer (day before yesterday), antebrazo (forearm), anteponer (to put something before something else)
* anti- (against): anticuerpo (antibody), antimateria (antimatter), anticoncepción (contraception)
* auto- (self): autodisciplina (self-discipline), autogestión (self-management), automóvil (automobile)
* bi-, bis-, biz- (two): bicicleta (bicycle), bilingüe (bilingual), bisemenal (twice a week)
* cent- (hundred): centímetro (centimeter), centenar (group of 100)
* contra- (against): contraataque (counterattack), contrapeso (counterweight), ir contrareloj (to work against the clock)
* con- (with): convivir (to live together), conjuntar (to coordinate), complot (conspiracy)
* des-(undo, diminish): desplegar (to unfold), desdecirse (to go back on one's word), descubrir (to discover or uncover)
* entre-, (between, among): entremeter (to place among), entrecruzar (to interweave), entreabierto (half-open)
* ex- (former, outside): excombatiente (military veteran), exportar (to export), exprimiar (to squeeze or sqeeze out)
* homo- (same): homónimo (homonym), homólogo (equivalent), homogeneizar (to homogenize)
* im-, in- (opposite): incapaz (incapable), inaudible (inaudible), inconformista (nonconformist)
* inter- (between, among): interacción (interaction), interrumpir (to interrupt), interponer (to interpose)
* mal- (bad): maltratar (to abuse or mistreat), malpensado (malicious), malvivir (to live badly)
* mono- (one): monótono (monotonous), monopolio (monopoly), monocarril (monorail)
* para- (together, with, for): paramédico (paramedic), paraguas (umbrella), parachoques (vehicle bumper)
* poli- (many): poligloto (multilingual person), politeísta (polytheistic), poligamia (polygamy)
* pre- (before): prefijo (prefix), predestinación (predestination), prehistoria (prehistory)
* pro- (in favor of): proponer (to propose), pronombre (pronoun), prometer (to promise)[/td]
* re- (again, with intensity): repaso (review), renacer (to be reborn), renegar (to strongly deny)
* semi- (medium, half): semidifunto (half-dead), semifinalista (semifinalist), semicírculo (semicircle)
* seudo- (false): seudónimo (pseudonym), seudociencia (pseudoscience)
* sobre- (excessive, extraordinary): sobrevivir (to survive), sobredosis (overdose), sobrecargar (to overload)
* super- (superior): supermercado (supermarket), superhombre (superman), supercarburante (high-grade fuel)
* sub- (under): subsuelo (subsoil), subyacer (to underlie), subsector (subsection)
* tele- (at a distance): teléfono (telephone), telecontrol (remote control), telescopio (telescope)
* uni- (one): unificación (unification), unilateral (one-sided), unisexo (unisex)